Joint workshop on lessons learnt

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Joint workshop on best practices and lessons learnt from project implementation of KRDP 1 project areas, 4-5 December 2014, 67 Hotel, Mlolongo

File:Lessons Learnt Concept Programme and Participants.docx Workshop agenda

Workshop Objectives

The purpose of the best practices and lessons learnt workshop was:

  • To share lessons learnt best practices, challenges and achievements of the project from the 6 counties.
  • To share updates/appraise on the progress and implementation status of activities as per project result areas.
  • To come up with a formal and structured coordination framework that will address the gaps identified.

Participants’ Expectations

  • To have efficient and Effective coordination framework for 2015
  • Get the progress of the project from other partners perspective
  • To know the way forward for collaboration
  • To share experience with other partners
  • To reflect on results and impact of the project
  • To know the role of NDMA in the implementation of KRDP
  • To learn best practice , success stories and challenges during implementation
  • To know the status of project implementation in all the counties
  • To learn from other partners
  • To learn about call for proposal and the role of NDMA
  • To explore area of partnership and collaboration with KLMC and SNV
  • Identify Gaps and areas of support

Progress report presentations

File:Overview KRDP Programme.pptx/spanFile:Activities Achieved in KRDP1-Tana River County1-1.pptFile:Activities Achieved in KRDP1-Wajir County1.pptFile:Isiolo County - LESSONS LEARNT WORKSHOP.ppt File:Progress Report November 2014 Baringo County.pptx/spanFile:Samburu and Marsabit Counties.pptxFile:Coordination and operational issues.pptFile:Result Area 4.pptx

Best practices, lessons learnt and challenges

Following the progress reports, participants were divided into six groups (according to their county of operation) to discuss the lessons, best practice and challenges faced. This was done in line with the four thematic areas namely fodder production, camel milk production and promotion, livestock market and co-ordination. A criteria for developing best practice and was agreed upon which included

  1. Identification of the success
  2. Attributing factors
  3. The sustainability of the best practice

A format for what did not work well was also developed which captured the following;

  1. Identification of the failure
  2. The attributing factors
  3. What could have been done to mitigate the challenges

Samburu County

Result area Key issues key success/best practices Attributing factors Challenges Attributing factors Mitigation options Sustainability
Fodder Production * Awareness creation
* Land availability
* Willingness of community to corporate
* Communal land ownership
Adoption rate low
Commercialization aspect yet to be fully embraced
Land use (communal ownership.)
Technical knowhow
Prolonged drought
Increased funding
Constitution and Cohesiveness of the groups
^ Bulking and storage * Availability of 2 stores (1000 – 1500 bales)
* Harvesting of seeds and hay
* Resource availability
* Community contribution and participation
Harvesting is labour intensive.
Lack of technical knowhow (at community level).
Premature grazing.
Unfriendly harvesting technologies.
Training on faster harvesting technologies. Linkage to markets.
^ marketing
a) Hay
b) Seeds
c) Fattening
* Sale of seeds and hay
* Demand is high
* Availability of adequate rainfall in some areas
* Existence of steer fattening groups
Dependency on relief hay.
Poor infrastructure.
Linkage to markets
Awareness creation
Bulking at household level.
^ Institution/target groups * Strengthening of groups
* Availability of groups and resources
* Technical backstopping from TWG
Institutions are not formalized
Not cohesive
Low awareness
On commercial fattening of steers
Proper constitution of groups.
Linkage to market
Livestock Market Infrastructure Ownership by community
Rehabilitation and construction of sale yards and loading ramps by partners
* Availability of resources
* Community involvement and participation
* Technical back stopping
Frequent breakdowns Quality of materials
Poor workmanship
Sourcing of competent contractors. Use of quality material like metal pipes
^ Production * Fattening of livestock
* Availability of hay
* Availability of market
* Technical back stopping
Limited technical know-how
Dependence on local breeds
Lack of exposure
Inadequate extension services
Inadequate resources
Capacity building
Breed improvement
Regular and frequent extension services
Routine follow ups
Exposure to successful groups.
^ Co -management * Increased revenue collection
* Sharing of revenue at 50-50
* Ownership
* Economic improvement of the area
* Improved infrastructure e.g. roads, water.
* Improved security
Increased resilience to drought as a result of regular income
Increased access to education
Partnership strengthened between actors eg NDMA, County Gvt, communities, SIDEP, SNV etc.
* Involvement of community
* Increased awareness of the market outside the county
* Availability of external traders
* Availability of resource
* Participation by outside traders
* Organized trading attracts buyers and sellers
* Conducive trading environment as a result of market infrastructure
* Continuous backstopping
* Improved pricing.
Slow and long process
Slow response from security machinery.
Accountability issues within LMAs
Too many bureaucracies.

Development of one MOU for the entire County.
Having CMM embedded in County livestock policies
Ensuring community ownership
^ Networking * Exposure tours
* Adoption by other counties
* Availability of resources
* Sharing of experiences and notes
* Observation of market operation
* Presentation of best practices in co-management
No common planning No trust among actors. Sharing of Plans through CSG Planned regular stakeholder meetings.
Coordination TWG Involvement of TWG members in implementation
Willingness of TWG members to participate in implementation
* Technical know-how
* Availability of technical expertise
No regular TWG meetings
No facilitation for the TWG meetings
No mechanism for the operation of TWGs
No common planning Development and sharing of TWG TOR
Facilitation of TWG
Development of TWG calendar
Ensuring implementation of the plans
^ CSG * Sensitization of CSG members
* Representation by TWG members l
No sharing of plans and progress No mechanisms for sharing
Poor CSG meetings attendance
Ensuring regular & timely sharing through proper channels Follow up on all actors to ensure participation in CSG meetings
^ Partnership * MOU signed with county Government and community Willingness of County Government to partner with the community
* Mediation by TWG
Process long and slow Bureaucracy One common County MOUs
Joint resource mobilization
Frequent sharing of information
M&E * Continuous and MTR done
* Availability of resources and staffs
* Inputs into the remaining phase of the project
* Was mandatory in project proposal
Not scheduled
Not coordinated
No shared plans Development and sharing of Joint plans for activities Development of a calendar
Knowledge management Documentation * Case studies done
* Reports produced
* Availability of resources
* Willingness of stakeholders to provide information on their cases
* Routine documentation of activities
Not done regularly Not shared Routine documentation and dissemination Routine dissemination
^ Trainings * Fodder training
* Training on co-management
* Training on steer fattening
* Availability of resources and man experts
* Demand for more knowledge
Continues changes of the target group Need for proper representation of communities Ensuring there is in house knowledge Follow up
^ Exposure visits Several visits done Knowledge utilized Availability of resources Selection of beneficiaries Participants selected by the groups themselves Increase county based exposure Ensuring proper identification of beneficiaries is done

Isiolo County

Result area Key issues Best practices/success Attributing factors Challenges Attributing factors Mitigation options Sustainability
Fodder Scale(target institutions)
Production/establishment Change in mind set Sensitization and training Inadequate rainfall (water)
Weak management
No/weak bylaws
Increase use of climate information
Capacity development
Strengthen indigenous rangeland management alongside fodder production
Handling and Storage Improved storage Fodder store and bailing boxes Limited knowledge and capacity Poor timing in harvesting Timely harvesting Continuous production and Community management of fodder production and storage
Commercialization of fodder
Marketing (hay, fattening, seeds) Available hay used to fatten livestock during drought
Exposition through trade fair
Past experiences
Limited production scale

Poor attitude toward fodder commercialization
Socio-cultural factors Exposure visits and
Linkage of fodder production groups to dairy farmers
Promote IGAs around fodder production
Instill local ownership
Capacity development Change in mind set
Exposition through trade fair
Limited market Lack of exposure Insecurity Cattle rustling Peace building forums Develop community ToTs
Camel milk Hygiene and handling Introduction of cooling plant and equipment Market requirement Smoked milk Socio-cultural practices Increase capacity on milk handling
Milk stratification
Value addition
Bulking/Cooperative Reduced operation costs Bulking Poor management Individual interests
Different pricing
Market segmentation Strengthening the running of the cooperative
Expansion of market
Marketing Linkage with camel milk processors Limited market options (Eastleigh) High transportation costs
Poor hygiene
Distance to market
Poor roads
Socio-cultural factors
Improve road network
Value addition
Capacity development
Value addition
Policy and legislation Framework for livestock production and management Lack of livestock policy framework Tedious consultation process and bureaucracy Diverse actors with varied interests Strengthening CSGs
Develop livestock policy
Synchronizing the framework within CIDP
Livestock markets Infrastructure Operational local markets Organized market days
Availability of livestock
Lack of control Weak management Capacity development
Encourage local ownership
Strong LMAs
Co-management Adoption of the model
Increased revenue
Lobbying Bureaucracy- delays, attitudes Diverse institutions (community, governments) Continuous lobbying Adoption of the model by county government

Tana River County

Result area Key issues key success/best practices Attributing factors Challenges Attributing factors Mitigation options Sustainability
Fodder Production Use of irrigation for fodder production Availability of water, existence of irrigation infrastructure High cost of fuel and generators maintenance.
Lack of protection of fodder site
Less return on investment (300 bail for a cow producing less than a litre)
Fodder plots not fenced
High temperature
Use of solar power to pump water
Rain Water harvesting for fodder production
Use low cost production methods
-Switching to Solar energy
-Rain water harvesting

Incorporate high return enterprise like dairy cows, Goats

Targeting should be driven by needs

Utilize knowledge/experience from similar projects/ activities
Marketing Pastoralist buying hay bails Availability, Sensitization and marketing strategies of the groups Transport
Bails are bulky
Culture of free range pastoral system
Increase local marketing strategies
Develop infrastructure
Involve more stake holders
Use of stores for individual use Frequency of drought spell, availability of the stores Low mechanization of harvesting process Production scale
Attitude by extension/technical officers
Capacity building on post-harvest management ^
Adoption Not significant - Not economical in pastoral production system
Land tenure system
Policy and practice
Community ownership of land
Sensitization of pastoralists ^
Target group Working with individuals within groups Low group cohesion Group dynamics Group formation Capacity building of groups and improve targeting process. ^
Livestock Market Infrastructure Community participation The market addressed community’s needs and sited in places of their choice
Cost of material transportation
Road networks
Vastness of the county
Improve road network Enhance Co-management

Increase local community participation

Involve line ministry more
Management Co-management and revenue sharing (Garsen market case) Ownership Financial institution absences
Revenue sharing not yet started
Capacity to maintain financial records
Under development of the county
High poverty level
Support development activities
Lobby financial institution to increase their presence
Policy Partners involvement in policy formulation Partnership
Constitution of Kenya
Political good will
Slow process
Capacity of policy formulation
Devolution is yet to mature A lawyer has been contracted to support formulation. ^
Security LMA/peace committee involvement in security issues Sensitization Money handling and transporting Poor road network
No banks
General lack of security
Improve road networks
Increase banking service coverage
Coordination TWG Involvement of TWG in procurement process Program design TOR of TWG not known to other stakeholders
Projects information not shared
Limited feedback from TWGs to institutions/orgs Involvement of all in the TWG TOR should be clear and shared

There should some platform for sharing

CSG role in recommending implementing partners/institutions.

CSG to be involved in M&E
M&E of activities No M&E plans Low sharing of report
Frame of M&E
TWG coordination not effective Strengthen TWG
Facilitate TWG
Prepare/share M&E frame work

Baringo County

Result area Key issues Best practices/success Attributing factors Challenges Attributing factors Mitigation options Sustainability
Fodder Pasture/fodder establishment Seed bulking
Water harvesting technologies

Steer fattening
Demand for range seeds
Availability of players (RAE Trust, KVDA)
Availability of range seeds
Existing expertise on water harvesting.

Demand for high quality livestock
Availability of pastures during the dry spell
Quality control
Prosopis invasion
Land tenure system

Inadequate capital

Scale of production
Inadequate knowledge base.
Climate change

Weak market linkages

Low resource base
Capacity building on CCA/fodder groups
Certification by relevant bodies KEPHIS
Irrigation pastures

Value chain finance
Stimulate the market for private sector business models uptake

Strengthening market linkages
Marketing Established Platforms for market linkages
Investment in storage facilities
Pasture conservation-hay baling
Market segmentation and targeting
Commercialization of fodder enterprises
Surplus harvest
Technological knowhow –storage handling and sale

Distribution of baling boxes.
Demand-supply gap
Weak horizontal linkages
Inadequate baling service providers.
Uncoordinated activities
High cost of equipment for baling
Contracts and Mous.
Service level agreements
Identification and training Local artisans.
Information sharing
Establish proper coordination structures.
Stakeholder mapping
Value chain finance.
Encourage more lead firms as BDS providers
Community organization. Existing functioning groups Profitability of the enterprise Group dynamics
Leadership and governance
Lack of transparency and accountability
External interference
Capacity building Continuous mentoring and coaching
Livestock markets Infrastructural development Construction of sale yards.
Available expertise in design(BQs)
Increasing demand for livestock
To facilitate off take for pastoralists
Enhance revenue collection
Rehabilitation of dilapidated facilities
Livestock diseases-quarantine
Poor feeder roads.
Loopholes in revenue collection
Retrogressive cultural practices.

Absence of periodic vaccination campaigns

Inadequate investment in road infrastructure
Lack of transparency and accountability by revenue collectors
Inadequate coordination-BCG-LMAs
Peace building initiative
Ring /timely vaccinations
Livestock systems development-livestock sale control form.
Review meetings
Programmed vaccination-vaccination fund
Cross border projects
Conducive investment climate.
Automating systems.
Co-management model LMAs committee establishment
MOUs signing-
Coordinated revenue collection
Need to participate in revenue collection and revenue sharing.
Need to plough back some revenue-local authorities were not doing it.
Delayed disbursement of the LMAs revenue share by CG
Inadequate capacity for financial management by LMAs
Weak management structures-low level of education, Inadequate ICT use
Capacity building
Standing imprest
Continuous mentoring and coaching
Transform LMAs to BDS providers
Capacity development Engaging local capacity builders in capacity development.
Establishment of technical working groups
Need for home grown solutions
Availability of multi -sectoral expertise
Delayed release of activity funds
Imbalanced Constitution of TWGs
Inconsistencies in meetings/M&E
Initial project catchment area
Lack of clarity on activity financier.
Forward planning

Develop a harmonized coordination framework.
Contracting LCB.
Regular meetings-monthly and quarterly.
Align project activities to existing TWGs
Policy Enforcement of policy and legislation Goodwill from national and CGs
Already existing laws and policy
Operationalization of existing Laws and policies
Aligning policy and legislation to the new constitution
New constitutional dispensation
Outdated policies and laws
Continuous consultation on with stakeholders Review of existing policies and laws
Knowledge management Information sharing Existing Stakeholder platforms
Case studies documentation
Need for experience sharing
Need for resource pooling-synergy
Need for documenting best practices and lost opportunities
Uncoordinated activities
Evolving technology-ICT
Trust issues
Lack of transparency and accountability

Inadequate capacity
Strengthen horizontal linkages
Capacity building
Strengthen platforms for information sharing-TWGs, CSGs
Information management Periodic reporting Need to track progress Inadequate data systems management In adequate capacity. Engage consultants Harmonized reporting system.
Continuous capacity building
Coordination TWG Review meetings Need to address emerging issues Irregular meetings Incentive driven
Lack of clarity on financier
Integrating TWGs meetings in the normal operations-recurrent
Identification of financier.
Proper coordination framework
M&E Missions-EU/NDMA/KRDP Need to track progress on projects implementation
Need to create synergies
Need to re-design project.
Lack of a clear M&E framework
Project review at inception and termination
Project design
Uncoordinated M&E
Lack of an M& E culture in some organizations
Inculcate M&E culture in organizations Continuous M&E
Engage partners and stakeholders in project design and implementation

Wajir County

Result area Key issues key success/best practices Attributing factors Challenges Attributing factors Mitigation options Sustainability
Fodder Production/
-high production
- increased availability and accessibility of fodder to producers
- project target for county achieved
-change of mind set due to capacity building
-High quality seeds
-Availability of land
-Enhanced skills on production
- fairly reliable rainfall
-Availability of pasture land
-intrusion by wildlife and livestock - lack of fencing (only bush fencing) -fencing of fodder farms (Barbed wire/Solar) -Being a community owned and resource controlled internally there are high chances of sustainability
^ Targeting -Project target achieved -Effective community mobilization -management issues of the preserved land interms of access (it belongs to all of us) -Land is communally owned - Involve EMC /Deedha in managing the range lands -ensure set bylaws are observed thro EMC
^ Storage -Construction of two fodder stores
-utilization of stored hay
-proper handling of hay
-increased access
-availability of funds
-community participation/involvement
-enhanced skills after training
-Low capacity of store - limited funding -increase funding -linkage to potential buyers including institutions
^ Marketing for hay -availability of local market
-Good publicity of group/product
-competitive price/good income for the group
- Wider market involving institution(schools/CG/NDMA
-Market differentiation
-Capacity building and exposure tours
-Ready market
-Quality of the hay produced
-Long distance to potential markets
-High transportation cost to the market
-Vastness of the county
-Poor infrastructure
-Centralized store
-More linkages and trending up sessions with potential buyers
- commercialization of pasture production
Capacity Building -Change of mindset
-Improved husbandry practices
and exposure tour
-Sensitization meetings
-Low uptake of the concept
-Pastoral background
-Continuous mentoring of the groups
-More exposure tours
-Use of home grown solutions e.g use of fast learners
Livestock Market -Existing Vibrant livestock marketing - Establishment of functional LMAs -Increased livestock volume in markets
-Improved infrastructure
-Reduced incidences of insecurity
-underutilization of some markets - MoU for revenue sharing not being honoured for some markets -Honouring of MoU by CG -Sharing of cost/expenses be 50:50
-strengthen early warning and community peace committees
Increased income for pastoralist and revenue collection -Adoption of co-management model -Working LMAs
-community empowerment through trainings and exposure tours
- Lack of dissemination of Livestock market information - Limited funding
-Low adoption of the model
- Increase sensitization to all the Stakeholders
-Strengthen capacity of LMAs on Livestock marketing information
-Continued capacity building and support to LMAs
policy Aligning current policies with existing ones
Knowledge management -Change of mind set
-information sharing
-Commercialization of pasture production
-Pastoralist willing to dispose off their livestock at opportune time
-Capacity building
-Improved market infrastructure
-Structured market days
-Functional LMAs
-Willingness by partners
-Low uptake
of recommendations.
-uncoordinated activities
- group dynamics –lack of transparency and accountability by officials Capacity built groups on group dynamics ,record keeping
-strengthen linkages and information sharing groups
Involve all community members considering the role played by both gender and youth